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Prosecutors halt vast, likely illegal DEA wiretap operation

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Riverside County, Calif. once accounted for nearly a fifth of all U.S. wiretaps. Prosecutors now say they have dramatically scaled back that eavesdropping, which the Justice Department feared was illegal.

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USA TODAY’s Brad Heath discusses Riverside County, California wiretipes once nation’s highest dropped considerably in 2015.

PALM SPRINGS, Calif. — Prosecutors in a Los Angeles suburb say they have dramatically scaled back a vast and legally questionable eavesdropping operation, built by federal drug agents, that once accounted for nearly a fifth of all U.S. wiretaps.

The wiretapping, authorized by prosecutors and a single state-court judge in Riverside County, alarmed privacy advocates and even some U.S. Justice Department lawyers, who warned that it was likely illegal. An investigation last year by The Desert Sun and USA TODAY found that the operation almost certainly violated federal wiretapping laws while using millions of secretly intercepted calls and texts to make hundreds of arrests nationwide.

Riverside’s district attorney, Mike Hestrin, acknowledged being concerned by the scope of that surveillance, and said he enacted “significant” reforms last summer to rein it in. Wiretap figures his office released this week offer the first evidence that the enormous eavesdropping program has wound down to more routine levels.

“I definitely don’t apologize for using this tool to hit the cartels in Riverside County,” said Hestrin, who took office last year. “I think the reforms I put in place were necessary, but this is still a tool that I believe in. It needs to be used cautiously, but it should be available when necessary.”

The number of wiretaps authorized in Riverside County started to climb in 2010; it quadrupled by 2014, when the county court approved 624 wiretaps — three times as many as any other state or federal court. Most of the surveillance was conducted at the behest of U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration agents, who used the eavesdropping to make arrests and seize drugs and cash as far away as New York and Virginia.

Officials approved another 607 wiretaps in 2015, according to the figures released by the district attorney’s office. Most were approved in the first half of the year, before Hestrin said he installed a “stricter” standard that required every new wiretap application to have a “strong investigatory nexus” to Riverside County.

Taps have dwindled since then. So far this year, Hestrin has approved only 14. In the first two months of last year, his office approved 126.

If the current rate continues, Riverside County will end 2016 with about between 85 and 120 wiretaps — still enough to rank it among the nation’s busiest wiretapping jurisdictions, based on 2014 records. But the county will no longer be in a stratosphere all its own.

“I’m pleased to hear this, but it never should have gotten out of hand in the first place,” said Steve Harmon, the Riverside County Public Defender. “If there is no strong investigative connection to Riverside County, then Riverside County has no interest being in this business.”

Privacy advocates, who had expressed alarm in the past, were more cautious.

Jennifer Lynch, a senior staff attorney with the Electronic Frontier Foundation, said it was “reassuring” the Riverside wiretap numbers had normalized, but worried there is “no oversight” even for new eavesdropping orders. Almost all wiretaps are sealed, and are sometimes kept secret even from the suspects who are arrested as a result of the eavesdropping, Lynch said.

“We are reliant on the prosecutors and the law enforcement officers to do their jobs and the judges not to just stamp a signature on them, but without releasing these on a regular basis it’s hard to be satisfied that the system is operating the way it should be,” Lynch said.

A Justice Department spokesman declined to comment on the abrupt drop in eavesdropping. In the past, DEA officials had said the surveillance was an important tool for targeting cartels that  had turned the suburbs around Riverside into one of the nation’s busiest drug trafficking corridors.

The majority of Riverside’s wiretap surge occurred under the watch of former District Attorney Paul Zellerbach, a one-term top prosecutor who was ousted by Hestrin at the end of 2014.

In interviews last fall, Zellerbach said his staff was “efficient and effective” at processing wiretaps. As word spread through law enforcement circles, the office received more and more requests to eavesdrop. Zellerbach had no qualms about leading the nation in taps. “I thought we were doing a hell of a job,” Zellerbach said in November.

Others did not share that opinion. Justice Department lawyers warned the DEA in private that the wiretaps were unlikely to withstand a legal challenge, and they generally refused to use them as evidence in federal court.

Distribution Release: Tiny Core Linux 7.0











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Tiny Core Linux 7.0 has been released. This is the first stable build in the minimalist distribution’s new 7.x branch, featuring the Linux kernel 4.2.9, glibc 2.22 and GCC 5.2.0. From the release announcement: “Team Tiny Core is proud to announce the release of Core 7.0. Changelog: Linux kernel updated to 4.2.9 with the latest stable patch, with these configuration changes – minstrel enabled for some wireless cards, vmmouse disabled for VMWare + Xvesa, the CPU limit on the 64-bit kernel raised to 64; BusyBox updated to 1.24.1; BusyBox patched to fix ‘crontab -e’ error; glibc updated to 2.22 and patched for DNS vulnerability; GCC updated to 5.2.0; e2fsprogs base libraries and applications updated to 1.42.13; util-linux base libraries and applications updated to 2.27; tc-config – use full path for hwclock. Notes: there is a drm/i915 kernel driver error pending a fix; the ALSA extensions have been refactored and updated; the X.Org 7.7 extensions have been updated.” Here is the brief release announcement. Download links: TinyCore-7.0.iso (16.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only), CorePlus-7.0.iso (106MB, MD5, includes flwm, JWM, IceWM, Fluxbox, Hackedbox, Openbox), TinyCorePure64-7.0.iso (24.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only).

Tiny Core Linux is a 12 MB graphical Linux desktop. It is based on a recent Linux kernel, BusyBox, Tiny X, Fltk, and Flwm. The core runs entirely in memory and boots very quickly. The user has complete control over which applications and/or additional hardware to have supported, be it for a desktop, a nettop, an appliance or server; selectable from the project’s online repository.

<IMG title="Tiny Core Linux" border=1 hspace=6 vspace=6 src="https://jkabtekk.files.wordpress.com/2016/02/tinycore-small.png&quot; a
Only three weeks have passed since the 6.2 version, but the developers of Tiny Core Linux have released another update – Tiny Core Linux 6.3, the latest stable build of the minimalist Linux distribution built from scratch: “Team Tiny Core is proud to announce the release of Tiny Core Linux 6.3. Changelog for 6.3: tce-load – exit if fromwhere doesn’t exist; tc-config – nfs4 patch from gerald_clark; tce-load – separate the listing and handling loops, patch from aswjh; tce-audit – fix adding missing extensions to tce_lst; tce-setup – move extension loop to tce-load, 4% speedup in CorePlus tce-setup time from aswjh; tce-load – simplification by aswjh; tce-load – simplify app_exists by aswjh; tce-load – the -t TCEDIR patch from aswjh. Note also that Xvesa/Xfbdev included in TinyCore and CorePlus and the Xfbdev in TinyCorePure64 have been updated to the latest repository version.” Here is the brief release announcement. Download links: TinyCore-6.3.iso (15.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only), CorePlus-6.3.iso (78.0MB, MD5, includes flwm, JWM, IceWM, Fluxbox, Hackedbox, Openbox), TinyCorePure64-6.3.iso (24.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only).The developers of Tiny Core have announced the release of Tiny Core Linux, version 6.2, the new stable build from the project that attempts to build the world’s smallest Linux distribution with a graphical desktop: “Team Tiny Core is proud to announce the release of Core 6.2. Changelog for 6.2: tce-audit – similar speedup patch from aswjh; tc-config – nfs4 mount changes from gerald_clark; tce-load – 2% speedup from aswjh; tce-size – apply patch from Greg Erskine for no-deps files; tce-remove, rc.shutdown – update copy2fs name; tce-ab – convert to a symlink; tce-load – awk recursion changes changed to a subshell, so exit status needs to be passed; tce-setup – wait for slow CD drives. In addition, TinyCorePure64 6.2.iso is now legacy-BIOS/(U)EFI multi-boot.” Here is the brief release announcement. Download one of the three available editions from the project’s website: TinyCore-6.2.iso (15.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only), CorePlus-6.2.iso (77.0MB, MD5, includes flwm, JWM, IceWM, Fluxbox, Hackedbox, Openbox), TinyCorePure64-6.2.iso (24.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only).Tiny Core Linux 6.1 has been released. This is the latest stable build of the minimalist (15 MB to download) desktop Linux distribution built from scratch. From the release announcement: “Team Tiny Core is proud to announce the release of Core 6.1. Changelog: tce-load – remove extraneous ls check, apply awk patch, remove unused depi variable; tc-functions – getbasefile speedup; tce-audit, tce-load – ignore spaces in dep files; BusyBox 1.23.1 patched for modinfo, modprobe, wget and dc; BusyBox updated to 1.23.1; settime.sh – fix systems with default year not 1970; search.sh – awk patch and move common part to a function; tce-audit – awk patch. Also in conjunction with the above in Xprogs: apps – quote the search argument, reload the list on an empty search, set a minimum size to the window, nicer resize behaviour. Several elements of X.Org 7.7 were also updated between 6.0 and 6.1 so users should use the apps GUI to check for updates and check for changed deps after upgrading.” Download links: TinyCore-6.1.iso (15.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only), CorePlus-6.1.iso (76.0MB, MD5, includes flwm, JWM, IceWM, Fluxbox, Hackedbox, Openbox), TinyCorePure64-6.1.iso (20.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only).Béla Markus has announced the release of version 6.0 of Tiny Core Linux “piCore” edition, a minimalist distribution designed for the Raspberry Pi single-board computer: “Team Tiny Core is pleased to announce the immediate availability of piCore 6.0. The most important change is the use of the official long-term 3.12.y (3.12.36) Linux kernel to offer more stable operation over experimental kernels and to get wider range of hardware supported, specially audio devices. The FLTK library has been updated to 1.3.3 to enable Unicode. FLTK 1.1 and 1.3 can be installed at the same time, and old applications using 1.1 will continue to work. The size of SD card images has been reduced. It boots in safe overclocking mode to shorten boot time by 20% with performance governor; switch to ‘ondemand’ when startup completes. Other changes: Core base synchronised with the common 6.0 base; Raspberry Pi firmware updated to January 19, 2015 version; e2fsprogs updated to 1.42.12….” Here is the full release announcement. Download: piCore-6.0-X.zip (24.7MB).Béla Markus has announced the availability of a new version of “piCore”, a specialist edition of Tiny Core Linux designed for the Raspberry Pi single-board computer: “Team Tiny Core is pleased to announce the immediate availability of piCore-5.3. Changelog: Linux kernel updated to 3.14.4; Raspberry Pi firmware updated to 2014-05-12 version; e2fsprogs updated to 1.42.10; util-linux updated to 2.24; official BusyBox patches applied; curaga’s wget3 BusyBox patch applied, setting default timeout to 10s; tce-load – don’t show an error when extension contains multiple modules; tce-load – use sudo when unmounting meta-extensions; patched to enable HDMI sound at 192 kbit/s rate; patched rtl8192cu driver to disable power saving; enabled CMA and FIQ-FSM by default.” See the release announcement for a full changelog and update instructions. Download from here: piCore-5.3-X.zip (24.7MB).Version 5.3 of Tiny Core Linux, the latest stable build of the fast and minimalist (less than 15 MB) desktop Linux distribution built from scratch, has been released and is now available for download: “Team Tiny Core is pleased to announce the release of Tiny Core Linux 5.3: Changelog: BusyBox – updated nosuid to 1.22.1, added ntpd, corrected dc failure, modified wget timeout to 10s; tce-load – don’t show an error when extension contains multiple modules; tc-config – change owner /tmp/tce/optional to support tftplist (thanks to Gerald Clark); tce-load – use sudo when unmounting meta-extensions; added full path to sudo commands; tc-config – introduce ntpserver boot option; switch getTime.sh to ntpd; replace aliases with functions in useBusyBox.” Here is the brief release announcement. Download links: TinyCore-5.3.iso (14.0MB, MD5, includes flwm only), CorePlus-5.3.iso (72.0MB, MD5, includes flwm, JWM, IceWM, Fluxbox, Hackedbox, Openbox).Béla Markus has announced the release of “piCore” 5.2.1, the Raspberry Pi port of Tiny Core Linux for the Raspberry Pi single-board computer: “Team Tiny Core is pleased to announce the availability of piCore 5.2.1. It is an independent system architected by Robert Shingledecker and now developed by a small team of developers with strong community support. Tiny Core Linux is not a traditional distribution but a toolkit to create your own customized system. It offers not only flexibility, small footprint but a very recent kernel and set of applications making it ideal for custom systems, appliances as well as to learn Linux, matching Raspberry Pi perfectly. It is running entirely in RAM. There is no installation in conventional terms; extensions mounted read only, after reboot the same clean system is available. Base raw SD card image with CLI version is only 21.5 MB including RPi boot loader, firmware and support files. Changes from 5.2: kernel updated to 3.13.6; updated RPi firmware; added more protection of TC scripts against bad extensions; added kernel modules required by USB 3G adapters; added kernel modules required to connect WiFi AP with SHA encryption….” Here is the full release announcement. Download: piCore-5.2.1-X.zip (21.5MB).Béla Markus has announced the release of “piCore”, an edition of Tiny Core Linux designed specifically for the Raspberry Pi single-board computer: “Team Tiny Core is pleased to announce the availability of piCore 5.2, the Raspberry Pi port of Tiny Core Linux. It is an independent system architected by Robert Shingledecker and now developed by a small team of developers with strong community support. Changes from 5.1: Linux kernel updated to 3.13.3; updated RPi firmware; use BusyBox in tc-functions changed to eliminate interference with certain installed GNU apps; rebuildfstab: do not replace fstab entries for a device that does not have ‘Added by TC’ on the line; init: increase the default inode count; ondemand: don’t list extensions under subdirs in onboot maintenance; BusyBox split suid/nosuid for better security; ldd – added quotes for binaries with spaces in their names; /etc/services – modified to suit rpcbind rather than portmap….” Read the rest of the release announcement for a complete changelog. Download: piCore-5.2-X.zip (20.4MB).



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Development Release: Xubuntu 16.04 Beta 1











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The Ubuntu Release Team has announced the availability of new beta test images for select community editions. The new development release, which carries the designation 16.04 Beta 1, is recommended for testers only and is not considered suitable for daily use. “This beta features images for Lubuntu, Ubuntu Cloud, Ubuntu GNOME, Ubuntu MATE, Ubuntu Kylin, Ubuntu Studio and Xubuntu. Pre-releases of Xenial Xerus are not encouraged for anyone needing a stable system or anyone who is not comfortable running into occasional, even frequent breakage. They are, however, recommended for Ubuntu flavour developers and those who want to help in testing, reporting and fixing bugs as we work towards getting this release ready.” Additional information can be found in the release announcement. Download: lubuntu-16.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (868MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntu-mate-16.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,592MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntu-gnome-16.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,252MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntustudio-16.04-beta1-dvd-amd64.iso (2,693MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntukylin-16.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,558MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), xubuntu-16.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,227MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist).

Xubuntu is a community-developed operating system based on Ubuntu. It comes with Xfce, which is a stable, light and configurable desktop environment.

<IMG title=Xubuntu border=1 hspace=6 vspace=6 src="https://jkabtekk.files.wordpress.com/2016/02/xubuntu-small.png&quot; a
The Xubuntu team has announced a new release of their distribution which combines packages from the Ubuntu repositories with the Xfce desktop environment. The new release, Xubuntu 15.10, swaps out Gnumeric and AbiWord for the LibreOffice productivity suite. The new release also includes version 4.12 of the Xfce desktop. The 15.10 release has the following highlights: Xfce4 Panel Switch for backup and restoration of panels. Included are five preset panel layouts. LibreOffice Calc and Writer and now included. These applications replace Gnumeric and AbiWord respectively. A new theme for LibreOffice, libreoffice-style-elementary is also included and is default for Wily Werewolf. Greybird accessibility icons for window manager. Known issue: gmusicbrowser is known to crash on close.” Further information can be found in the distribution’s release announcement and a full list of changes and new packages are provided in the release notes. Download: xubuntu-15.10-desktop-amd64.iso (1,052MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist).The Xubuntu development team has launched Xubuntu 15.04. The Xubuntu distribution is based on packages pulled from the Ubuntu repositories and offers users Xfce as the default desktop environment. The latest version of Xubuntu ships with Xfce 4.12 and improves the appearance of Qt-based applications running in the Xfce environment. “Xubuntu now uses Xfce 4.12, which was released on February 28. The new release has brought both some new features and many bug fixes over the old 4.10/4.11 components. For a complete changelog for Xfce 4.12, see the 4.12 changelog on Xfce.org. In addition to the new Xfce release, the 15.04 release has the following highlights: New/Updated Xubuntu Light/Dark colour schemes in Mousepad, Terminal; Mousepad colour scheme set to Xubuntu Light by default; Better appearance for Qt applications out of the box (default to GTK theme); Redundant File Manager (Settings) menu entry removed.” Further information can be found in the release announcement and a full list of changes are provided in the release notes. Download: xubuntu-15.04-desktop-amd64.iso (963MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist).The Ubuntu family of distribution is one step closer to version 15.04 as the first beta builds of Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu GNOME, Ubuntu Kylin, Ubuntu MATE and now also Xubuntu get ready for testing: “The Xubuntu team is pleased to announce the immediate release of Xubuntu 15.04 Beta 1. This is the first beta towards the final release in April. The first beta release also marks the end of the period to land new features in the form of Ubuntu feature freeze. This means any new updates to packages should be bug fixes only, the Xubuntu team is committed to fixing as many of the bugs as possible before the final release. New features and enhancements: LightDM GTK+ Greeter settings tool added; development wallpaper introduced; XFCE Panel now has an intelligent hiding mode….” See the general announcement as well as Xubuntu’s own release announcement for more details and known issues. Download links: kubuntu-15.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,218MB, SHA256, torrent), lubuntu-15.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (678MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntu-gnome-15.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,005MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntukylin-15.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,307MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntu-mate-15.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,094MB, SHA256, torrent), xubuntu-15.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (957MB, SHA256, torrent).Xubuntu 14.10 has been released. Xubuntu is a desktop Linux distribution focusing on usability and performance through its classic Xfce desktop. From the release announcement: “The Xubuntu team is pleased to announce the immediate release of Xubuntu 14.10. To celebrate the 14.10 code name ‘Utopic Unicorn’ and to demonstrate the easy customisability of Xubuntu, highlight colors have been turned pink for this release. You can easily revert this change by using the theme configuration application under the Settings Manager; simply turn Custom Highlight Colors ‘Off’ and click ‘Apply’. Of course, if you wish, you can change the highlight color to something you like better than the default blue. Starting with Xubuntu 14.10, you should use pkexec instead of gksudo for running graphical applications with root access from the terminal for improved security.” See also the release notes for a full changelog and a list of known issues. Download: xubuntu-14.10-desktop-amd64.iso (979MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist).Pasi Lallinaho has announced the release of Xubuntu 14.04, a desktop distribution shipping with the latest development build of the Xfce desktop, version 4.11: “The Xubuntu team is pleased to announce the immediate release of Xubuntu 14.04. Xubuntu 14.04 is an LTS (long-term support) release and will be supported for 3 years. The highlights of this release include: Light Locker replaces XScreenSaver for screen locking, a settings GUI is included; the panel layout is updated, it now uses Whisker Menu by default; Mugshot is included to allow editing personal preferences; MenuLibre for menu editing with full Xfce support replaces Alacarte; a community wallpapers package which includes work from the five winners of the wallpaper contest; GTK+ Theme Config to customize desktop theme colors; updated artwork, including various enhancements to themes as well as a new default wallpaper.” Here is the release announcement with known issues and acknowledgements. Download: xubuntu-14.04-desktop-amd64.iso (913MB, SHA256, torrent).The Xubuntu development team has announced that the first beta release of Xubuntu 14.04 is now ready for download and testing: “The Xubuntu team is pleased to announce the release of Xubuntu 14.04 Beta 1. This is the first beta towards the final LTS release, and with it we have landed a lot of new features and improvements we’ve been preparing since the last LTS release two years ago. The highlights of this release include: Light Locker replaces XScreenSaver for screen locking, a setting editing GUI is included; the panel layout is updated, it now uses Whisker Menu as the default menu; Mugshot is included to allow you to easily edit your personal preferences; MenuLibre for menu editing with full Xfce support….” See the release announcement for more information and known issues. Download: xubuntu-14.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (937MB, SHA256). Other Ubuntu distributions that released new testing CD/DVD images today include Edubuntu (download), Kubuntu (release notes, download), Lubuntu (release notes, download), Ubuntu GNOME (announcement, download), Ubuntu Kylin (download) and Ubuntu Studio (announcement, download).The second alpha release of Xubuntu 14.04 and several other members of the Ubuntu family (but without Ubuntu itself) is now ready for download and testing: “The Xubuntu team is happy to announce the immediate release of Xubuntu 14.04 Alpha 2. As often expected with very early cycle releases, this release has some issues which we will be working to resolve before the final release. Notably, it is impossible to successfully use the alpha 2 to set up an auto-resized system automatically. You will not be able to set the partition sizes. Other known issues: top ruler missing from AbiWord; keyboard input method closing unexpectedly; Ubiquity window spans monitor width; desktop items have background; Thunar not always automounting USB; resize bar missing when running auto-resize install option.” Here is the brief release announcement. Download: xubuntu-14.04-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (894MB, SHA256). Other distributions that opted to participate in alpha 2 testing include Edubuntu (release notes, download), Kubuntu (release notes, download), Ubuntu GNOME (release notes, download) and Ubuntu Kylin (download).Pasi Lallinaho has announced the release of Xubuntu 13.10, an official flavour of the Ubuntu operating system with Xfce – a stable, light and configurable desktop environment: “The Xubuntu team is delighted to announce the release of Xubuntu 13.10! Some of the highlights for Xubuntu 13.10 include: a new version of xfce4-settings has been uploaded, bringing amongst other things a new dialog to set up your displays; a tool for changing your theme colors easily, gtk-theme-config, has been added to the default installation; new wallpaper; new releases of our GTK+ themes (with GTK+ 3.10 support) as well as the LightDM greeter, fixing many visual bugs; updated documentation. Known problems: indicator sound no longer functions with Xfce indicator plugin; gmusicbrowser’s albuminfo plugin is deactivated by default and causes the app to hang if enabled….” See the release announcement and release notes for further details. Download: xubuntu-13.10-desktop-amd64.iso (842MB, SHA256, torrent).



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Distribution Release: Ubuntu 14.04.4











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Adam Conrad has announced the release of Ubuntu 14.04.4, the fourth maintenance update of the distribution’s latest long-term support branch. This version is provided for users performing new installations of Ubuntu 14.04 (or any of the official Ubuntu flavours). From the release announcement: “The Ubuntu team is pleased to announce the release of Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS (long-term support) for its Desktop, Server, Cloud, and Core products, as well as other flavours of Ubuntu with long-term support. We have expanded our hardware enablement offering since 12.04, and with 14.04.4, this point release contains an updated kernel and X stack for new installations to support new hardware across all our supported architectures.” Download links: ubuntu-14.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso (1,020MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), edubuntu-14.04.4-dvd-amd64.iso (3,034MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), kubuntu-14.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso (1,054MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), lubuntu-14.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso (737MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), mythbuntu-14.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso (1,074MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntu-gnome-14.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso (962MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntukylin-14.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso (1,169MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntustudio-14.04.4-dvd-amd64.iso (2,662MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), xubuntu-14.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso (960MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist).

Ubuntu is a complete desktop Linux operating system, freely available with both community and professional support. The Ubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Ubuntu Manifesto: that software should be available free of charge, that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities, and that people should have the freedom to customise and alter their software in whatever way they see fit. “Ubuntu” is an ancient African word, meaning “humanity to others”. The Ubuntu distribution brings the spirit of Ubuntu to the software world.

<IMG title=Ubuntu border=1 hspace=6 vspace=6 src="https://jkabtekk.files.wordpress.com/2016/02/ubuntu-small.png&quot; a
Adam Conrad has announced the launch of Ubuntu 15.10. The new Ubuntu release features version 4.2 of the Linux kernel, updated packages of Firefox, LibreOffice and the GNU Compiler Collection along with several bug fixes. “Codenamed `Wily Werewolf’, 15.10 continues Ubuntu’s proud tradition of integrating the latest and greatest open source technologies into a high-quality, easy-to-use Linux distribution. The team has been hard at work through this cycle, introducing new features and fixing bugs. Under the hood, there have been updates to many core packages, including a new 4.2-based kernel, a switch to gcc-5, and much more. Ubuntu Desktop has seen incremental improvements, with newer versions of GTK and Qt, updates to major packages like Firefox and LibreOffice, and stability improvements to Unity. Ubuntu Server 15.10 includes the Liberty release of OpenStack, alongside deployment and management tools that save devops teams time when deploying distributed applications – whether on private clouds, public clouds, x86, ARM, or POWER servers, or on developer laptops. Several key server technologies, from MAAS to juju, have been updated to new upstream versions with a variety of new features.” Further information can be found in the project’s release announcement and in the release notes. Download (pkglist): ubuntu-15.10-desktop-amd64.iso (1,123MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntu-15.10-server-amd64.iso (632MB, SHA256, torrent).Adam Conrad has announced the availability of new testing images for the Ubuntu distribution and Ubuntu’s many community projects. The new images represent the second (and final) beta release of Ubuntu 15.10 and will likely be the last set of testing media prior to the final release of Ubuntu 15.10. “Codenamed `Wily Werewolf’, 15.10 continues Ubuntu’s proud tradition of integrating the latest and greatest open source technologies into a high-quality, easy-to-use Linux distribution. The team has been hard at work through this cycle, introducing new features and fixing bugs.” There is one known bug in the beta’s installer related to detecting time zones. The workaround, should the bug be encountered, is to install Ubuntu without an active network connection. Further information can be found in the release announcement. Downloads: ubuntu-15.10-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,210MB, SHA256, torrent, release notes, pkglist), kubuntu-15.10-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,358MB, SHA256, torrent, release notes, pkglist), lubuntu-15.10-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (805MB, SHA256, torrent, release notes, pkglist), ubuntu-gnome-15.10-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,171MB, SHA256, torrent, release notes, pkglist), ubuntukylin-15.10-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,424MB, SHA256, torrent, release notes, pkglist), ubuntu-mate-15.10-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,163MB, SHA256, torrent, release notes, pkglist), ubuntustudio-15.10-beta2-dvd-amd64.iso (2,475MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), xubuntu-15.10-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,170MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist).Martin Wimpress has announced the availability of a new set of testing images for version 15.10 Beta 1 of the various Ubuntu community distributions. These new beta images provide previews of new technologies present in the community distributions and offer users a way to test the software and report bugs. “The first beta of the Wily Werewolf (to become 15.10) has now been released! This beta features images for Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu GNOME, Ubuntu Kylin, Ubuntu MATE, Xubuntu and the Ubuntu Cloud images. Pre-releases of the Wily Werewolf are not encouraged for anyone needing a stable system or anyone who is not comfortable running into occasional, even frequent breakage.” Downloads: kubuntu-15.10-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,341MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release announcement), lubuntu-15.10-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (775MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release announcement)), ubuntu-gnome-15.10-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,161MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release announcement), ubuntu-mate-15.10-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,132MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release announcement), xubuntu-15.10-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,150MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release announcement), ubuntukylin-15.10-beta1-desktop-amd64.iso (1,401MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release announcement).Adam Conrad has announced the release of an updated version of the Ubuntu distribution and Ubuntu’s many community spins. The new download media does not represent a separate new release, rather it provides fresh installation media with up to date packages and bug fixes. Apart from Ubuntu itself, fresh installation media are also available for the Edubuntu, Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu Studio, Ubuntu GNOME, Ubuntu Kylin, Xubuntu and Mythbuntu projects. “We have expanded our hardware enablement offering since 12.04, and with 14.04.3, this point release contains an updated kernel and X stack for new installations to support new hardware across all our supported architectures, not just x86.” Further information is available in the release announcement. Download links, upgrade information and more technical details can be found in the release notes. Download: ubuntu-14.04.3-desktop-amd64.iso (1,006MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), edubuntu-14.04.3-dvd-amd64.iso (3,021MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), kubuntu-14.04.3-desktop-amd64.iso (1,050MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), lubuntu-14.04.3-desktop-amd64.iso (727MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), mythbuntu-14.04.3-desktop-amd64.iso (1,051MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntu-gnome-14.04.3-desktop-amd64.iso (955MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntukylin-14.04.3-desktop-amd64.iso (1,145MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntustudio-14.04.3-dvd-amd64.iso (2,653MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), xubuntu-14.04.3-desktop-amd64.iso (949MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist).The Ubuntu Release Team has announced the availability of a new test release of Ubuntu’s community distributions. These community distributions are independently maintained while sharing infrastructure and resources with Ubuntu. The new release, version 15.10 Alpha 2, is still under heavy development and is intended for testing purposes only. From the release announcement: “The second alpha of the Wily Werewolf (to become 15.10) has now been released! This alpha features images for Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu MATE, Ubuntu Kylin and the Ubuntu Cloud images. Pre-releases of the Wily Werewolf are not encouraged for anyone needing a stable system or anyone who is not comfortable running into occasional, even frequent breakage. They are, however, recommended for Ubuntu flavor developers and those who want to help in testing, reporting and fixing bugs as we work towards getting this release ready. Alpha 2 includes a number of software updates that are ready for wider testing.” Downloads: kubuntu/wily-desktop-amd64.iso (1,275MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release notes), lubuntu/wily-desktop-amd64.iso (728MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release notes), ubuntumate/wily-desktop-amd64.iso (1,038MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release notes), ubuntukylin/wily-desktop-amd64.iso (1,310MB, SA256, torrent, pkglist, release notes).Adam Conrad has announced the availability of alpha test images for the family of Ubuntu community editions. The Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu MATE and UbuntuKylin projects have released development snapshots of their upcoming 15.10 releases for people who want to test the distributions and report bugs. “The first alpha of the Wily Werewolf (to become 15.10) has now been released! This alpha features images for Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu MATE, UbuntuKylin and the Ubuntu Cloud images. Pre-releases of the Wily Werewolf are not encouraged for anyone needing a stable system or anyone who is not comfortable running into occasional, even frequent breakage. They are, however, recommended for Ubuntu flavor developers and those who want to help in testing, reporting and fixing bugs as we work towards getting this release ready. Alpha 1 includes a number of software updates that are ready for wider testing. This is quite an early set of images, so you should expect some bugs.” More details and download links can be found in the release announcement. Downloads: kubuntu/wily-desktop-amd64.iso (1,271MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release notes), lubuntu/wily-desktop-amd64.iso, (700MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release notes, ubuntu-mate/wily-desktop-amd64.iso (1,121MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist, release notes), ubuntukylin/wily-desktop-amd64.iso (1,326MB, MD5, torrent, pkglist).Canonical has announced the launch of Ubuntu 15.04. The new release, which will be supported for nine months, features LibreOffice 4.4, version 3.19 of the Linux kernel and a switch from Canonical’s Upstart init to systemd. “systemd has replaced Upstart as the standard boot and service manager on all Ubuntu flavors except Touch. At the time of the 15.04 release there are no known major problems which prevent booting. The only service which does not currently start is Juju, which will be fixed in a post-release update soon; all other packaged Ubuntu services are expected to work. Upstart continues to control user sessions… You can boot with Upstart once by selecting `Advanced options for Ubuntu’ in the GRUB boot menu and starting the `Ubuntu, with Linux … (upstart)’ entry. To switch back permanently, install the upstart-sysv package (this will remove systemd-sysv and ubuntu-standard).” The new release offers several updates and improvements for LXC containers and this is the first version of Ubuntu to offer the LXD container management utility. Ubuntu is available in a number of editions, including Desktop, Server and Snappy, a minimal “core” installation. More details on Ubuntu 15.04 can be found in the release notes. Downloads: ubuntu-15.04-desktop-amd64.iso (1,097MB, SHA256, torrent, pkglist), ubuntu-15.04-server-amd64.iso (616MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntu-15.04-snappy-amd64-generic.img.xz (122MB, SHA256).Canonical has announced the launch of Ubuntu 15.04 Final Beta along with the availability of beta images for the many Ubuntu community distributions. These test images should be mostly bug-free, but are still intended to be used for testing purposes. “Codenamed “Vivid Vervet”, 15.04 continues Ubuntu’s proud tradition of integrating the latest and greatest open source technologies into a high-quality, easy-to-use Linux distribution. The team has been hard at work through this cycle, introducing new features and fixing bugs. This beta release includes images from not only the Ubuntu Desktop, Server, Cloud, and Core products, but also the Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu GNOME, Ubuntu Kylin, Ubuntu Studio and Xubuntu flavours. In addition to the usual suspects, we’re also welcoming a new flavour to the family this cycle with Ubuntu MATE.” More information can be found in the project’s release notes. Downloads: ubuntu-15.04-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,094MB, SHA256, torrent), kubuntu-15.04-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,247MB, SHA256, torrent), lubuntu-15.04-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (686MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntu-gnome-15.04-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,010MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntukylin-15.04-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,320MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntu-mate-15.04-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (1,085MB, SHA256, torrent), ubuntustudio-15.04-beta2-dvd-amd64.iso (2,359MB, SHA256, torrent), xubuntu-15.04-beta2-desktop-amd64.iso (961MB, SHA256, torrent).



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OS Release: ReactOS 0.4.0











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Ziliang Guo has announced the release of ReactOS 0.4.0, a major new update of the built-from-scratch operating system that attempts to clone the design of the Microsoft Windows NT architecture. This release brings many dramatic improvements, including USB and wireless networking support: “Nearly ten years ago the ReactOS project released version 0.3.0. Today we are proud to announce the formal release of version 0.4.0. A great deal of work has gone into making this release happen and, as we look back, it is remarkable to consider how far the project has come since that release a decade ago. Here we document some of the highlights that separate 0.4.0 from not just the 0.3.17 release but also the cumulative achievements that the 0.3.x series achieved. User-centric improvements: ext2 read/write and NTFS read support; new explorer shell and theme support; SerialATA support; sound support; USB support; VirtualBox and VirtualPC support; wireless networking.” Read the rest of the release announcement for detailed information and a screenshot. Download (MD5) the installation or the live CD image from SourceForge: ReactOS-0.4.0-REL-iso.zip (93.8MB), ReactOS-0.4.0-REL-live.zip (65.7MB).

ReactOS is a free and open-source operating system based on the best design principles found in the Windows NT architecture. Written completely from scratch, ReactOS is not a Linux-based system and it shares none of the UNIX architecture. The main goal of the ReactOS project is to provide an operating system which is binary compatible with Windows. This will allow Windows applications and drivers to run as they would on a Windows system. Additionally, the look and feel of the Windows operating system is used, such that people accustomed to the familiar user interface of Windows would find using ReactOS straightforward. The ultimate goal of ReactOS is to allow people to use it as an alternative to Windows without the need to change software they are used to.

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Why Apple is right to fight FBI: ex-Apple security

Rick Orloff, former Apple security chief Monday, 22 Feb 2016 | 12:00 PM ETCNBC.com

The U.S. Department of Justice’s motion issued last week to compel Apple to create a bypass of its iPhone data self-destruct feature is understandable. The FBI wants to access data stored on an encrypted iPhone owned by Syed Farook, who, with his wife, killed 14 people in San Bernardino last December.

Apple’s CEO Tim Cook wrote a public letter to customers, calling the order a dangerous precedent.

However, when we examine the implications of having Apple and other companies build “backdoors” into their products that enable law enforcement authorities to access encrypted data on endpoint devices, we soon find that building such backdoors actually creates more problems than it solves.

Apple CEO Tim Cook.

It could lead to putting these backdoors into everyone’s smart phone, PC or other computing device, creating a whole new attack vector for hackers to exploit. Hackers and hostile foreign countries will see this as an opportunity to use this vulnerability to their benefit.

If these backdoors are built, it will be a question of when, not if, a hacker will create his own exploit and use it to get his hands on an enterprise’s, person’s or government agency’s data.

In addition, if we start down the slippery slope of including backdoors in our computing devices, then sophisticated terrorists and other criminals will pursue alternative security solutions. Rather than depend on an endpoint’s built-in encryption and other security features, they will add off-the-shelf security tools to protect their data.

The Department of Justice will end up finding itself playing a game of “whack-a-mole,” working to compel every third-party encryption vendor within its jurisdiction to build backdoors into its products. Yet even if the government finds a way to win this game it will still lose.

Sooner or later, companies located in countries beyond the U.S. Department of Justice’s legal jurisdiction will develop and sell their own encryption tools – companies that the U.S. Department of Justice will be unable to compel to install backdoors.

Meanwhile, the negative impact of creating these backdoors in hardware and software products is significant. Corporations and individuals will no longer trust that the data they save on their smart phones, PCs and other computing devices is safe – unless they add complex and expensive third-party encryption tools to these devices themselves.

Also, computing device manufacturers would likely need to create whole new teams to manage the hundreds to thousands of unlock requests they are likely to get from not just the federal government, but state, local, and foreign governments as well.

Moreover, creating backdoors to access encrypted data on endpoint devices is not a silver bullet that will win the war on terrorism. If law enforcement agencies have a suspect in their sights, there are many tools, processes and capabilities they can leverage to gather data that will further their investigations. Trying to decrypt data on an endpoint, while very valuable, isn’t the only option.

In the end, if we force companies to build backdoors that the government can use to access encrypted data we wind up making our security problem worse, not better. Terrorists and criminals will continue to use other tools to secure or encrypt their data.

Corporations, governments, and individuals will need to add yet another piece of software to their technology stack to mitigate a known backdoor. If they don’t, and they are compromised, government leaders and executives will ask the security team, “If you knew about the vulnerability, why didn’t you protect us from it?”

I believe we all want to prevent terrorism. But in doing so, we should not weaken the security posture of the internet, and only make ourselves less safe, not more.

Commentary by Rick Orloff, Chief Security Officer, software company Code42. Previously he was Apple’s senior director of security.

For more insight from CNBC contributors, follow @CNBCopinion on Twitter.

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Most companies aren’t prepared for a hack attack

Ralph de la Vega, vice chairman at AT&T Monday, 22 Feb 2016 | 9:44 AM ETCNBC.com

The Internet of Things is changing the world around us. It’s advancing the future of business and bringing new capabilities and efficiencies to companies to help them stay competitive. It’s disrupting industries, from health care to hotels to hair salons.

Catch Ralph de la Vega today on CNBC’s “Squawk Alley” on Monday Feb. 22 at 11:15am ET.

Cyber security weerapatkiatdumrong | Getty Images

The impact of IoT is being likened to a new industrial revolution. But, with its great potential comes new opportunities for cybercriminals.

A single cyberattack can inflict millions of dollars in damage. These threats are unfortunately inherent to IoT technology, which is reshaping almost every element of modern life, from driving our cars to taking medication and adjusting the thermostat. In just the past two years, AT&T observed an astonishing 458 percent increase in vulnerability scans of IoT devices, according to AT&T’s second Cybersecurity Insights Report, this one on Exploring IoT Security.


Unlike data and privacy breaches, which threaten to compromise medical records and credit-card information, the security risks to IoT devices could have far greater consequences — for example putting patients, automobile drivers and others at risk. According to the AT&T report, the threat is likely to increase as the number of connected devices swells to an estimated 50 billion devices by 2020.

There are clear signs, however, that businesses aren’t yet effectively addressing IoT security.

According to the report, less than half of respondents (47 percent) say their organizations analyze connected device security logs and alerts more than once a day — a pace that will need to quicken as the risk profile rises. Only 14 percent of companies have instituted a formal audit process to help understand whether their devices are secure and how many devices they have, and just 17 percent involve their boards in decision-making around IoT security.

Perhaps most startling, among health care/life sciences professionals, just 30 percent of respondents are analyzing the logs and alerts of connected devices in real time, even though 64 percent say they are confident or extremely confident in their IoT cybersecurity defenses.

What more can be done?

The good news is that efforts are underway to create standards for securing IoT devices that will help make them safer from cyberattacks. To help businesses address the urgent need for IoT security, we recently announced plans to work with Bayshore Networks to explore innovation in virtualized security protections and capabilities for IoT customers.

While Bayshore has been a leader in developing industrial IoT security solutions, most other efforts are still largely in their early stages, making it all the more imperative that business leaders find ways to maximize the tremendous benefits IoT technology can provide to their customers and their workforce while minimizing the risks it presents.

To help do that, the AT&T report identifies six principles business leaders should adopt to protect their companies and their customers from IoT cyberattacks.

Adopt a risk-driven approach. Identify your most critical assets or highest risks — which in IoT may extend beyond data to physical impacts – and then apply security controls that are commensurate with each level of risk.

Look beyond IoT device security. It’s important to secure not just device-based data and operations, but also the many levels and types of communications networks and applications that support IoT solutions.

Don’t reinvent the wheel. Existing security controls and procedures may be sufficient for many IoT deployments, but be mindful of unique IoT devices, applications and increased scale that require new controls and protections.

Address the entire IoT ecosystem and know your supply chain. Evaluate the security capabilities and responsibilities of your IoT product and service providers, as well as those of your business partners.

Automate security where possible. Given the massive increase in connected endpoints and the data volumes they can generate, IoT deployments are driving the need for increased automation in data monitoring, threat identification, and other facets of security.

Involve your board. Communicating often with your board of directors will see to it that corporate leaders clearly understand both the opportunities and risks of IoT deployments.


The Internet of Things has the potential to reshape the way we work, live and communicate. But with this great promise comes great responsibility to provide products and services that are highly secure.

Commentary by Ralph de la Vega, the vice chairman of AT&T and CEO of AT&T Business Solutions & AT&T International.


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Feds ‘frustrated’ by Tim Cook interview: Official

Thursday, 25 Feb 2016 | 2:28 PM ETCNBC.com

A senior law enforcement official told CNBC that officials are “frustrated” by Apple CEO Tim Cook’s interview on ABC News Wednesday, particularly Cook’s argument that the FBI’s proposal in the dispute about access to a San Bernardino, California, shooter’s iPhone would affect “hundreds of millions of users.”

Officials point to the text of the court order issued last week and argue that their proposal is “a solution for a single device by serial number in a single case.”

The official also responded to Cook’s analogy that creating new software to access the iPhone of San Bernardino shooter Syed Farook would be akin to creating the “software equivalent of cancer.” Cook’s argument is that new software designed just to eliminate the security features of Farook’s iPhone would inevitably be targeted by hackers and thieves and possibly escape into the control of hostile third parties.

Apple CEO Tim Cook Chip Somodevilla | Getty Images News | Getty Images

That doesn’t convince many officials in Washington.

“If you’re talking cancer cells,” the official said, responding to Cook’s analogy, “in this case [Apple] would create the cancer cell, they would use the cancer cell and they would destroy the cancer cell, in their own facility, where you would think they have very good security.”

That private assessment by a government official differed from the public tone of FBI Director James Comey in testimony Thursday before the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. In his public remarks, Comey went out of his way to praise Apple for its cooperation before the dispute went public last week.

He declined an opening offered by a member of Congress to repeat government claims that Apple is acting out of concern for its business model. And Comey suggested he could see both sides of the issue, saying the dispute “is the hardest question I’ve seen in government” and emphasizing the need for conversation and negotiation.

For his part, Apple CEO Cook used his ABC News interview to frame the debate in terms of the fundamental aspects of American life. “This is not about one phone — this is about the future,” he said. “It’s about freedom of expression and freedom of speech, these are core principles in America.”

And Cook also worried aloud about the potential consequences of being forced to write new software for the government. “If a court can ask us to write this piece of software, think about what else they can ask us to write,” he said. “Maybe it’s an operating system for surveillance. Maybe it’s the ability for the law enforcement to turn on the camera. I mean, I don’t know where this stops.”

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CEO email scam costs companies $2 billion

Thursday, 25 Feb 2016 | 10:48 AM ETFinancial Times

Cyber security hacking Brian A Jackson | Getty Images

A scam in which criminals impersonate the email accounts of chief executives has cost businesses around the globe more than $2bn in little over two years, according to the US Federal Bureau of Investigation.

The FBI has seen a sharp increase in “business email crime,” a simple scam that is also known as “CEO fraud”, with more than 12,000 victims affected globally.

In the scam, a criminal mimics a chief executive’s email account and directs an employee to wire money to an overseas bank account. By the time the company realises it has been duped, the money is gone.

Read more from the Financial Times:
How companies are hit by email scams
One in four companies hit by cyber attacks
Apple to strengthen iCloud encryption

The average loss is $120,000 but some companies have been tricked into sending as much as $90m to offshore accounts, US authorities say.

Reports of CEO fraud are accelerating. Between October 2013 and August 2015, about $1.2bn globally was lost to the scheme, the FBI said, but that loss increased by another $800m in the past six months. US authorities have traced the money involved to 108 countries.

“Criminals don’t have borders and this is a global problem,” said James Barnacle, chief of the FBI’s money laundering unit. “We’re working with our criminal investigation resources, our cyber resources, our international operations divisions — which is all our legal attachés overseas — and we’re working with foreign partners around the world to try to tackle this crime problem.”

The rise in reported CEO frauds can be partly attributed to companies detecting the crime, but it also reflects the simple nature of the scheme that can be run from anywhere around the globe.

“It’s easy. All you need is a computer,” Mr Barnacle said.

Most of the offshore bank accounts in which the money ends up are located in Asia or Africa, where it can be harder for the US to gain the assistance of local authorities.

The FBI has seen similarities between different CEO fraud schemes but it is not clear if there is one dominant global ring.

“We’re putting more resource to it. We’re trying to find those patterns,” Mr Barnacle said.

The FBI advises companies to be more guarded with their information even if it means taking additional steps that are not cost-effective, such as making a phone call to the executive to confirm the transfer.

The crime has hit very large companies and small ones. Most recently, there have been new reports in the US of criminals targeting real estate firms to steal closing fees on housing sales. Some companies have been asked by imposters to email employee wage and tax statements.

Last year police from Italy, Spain and other European countries arrested more than 60 members of an alleged criminal group, including several Nigerians, for their role in an email fraud scheme that affected hundreds of individuals and tens of companies.

Still, few cases have been made, reflecting the challenges of combating international cyber crimes.


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